According to Karl Marx, religion is merely an opiate of the people and according to him, moral activities are bound by the communal behavior of the entire society. The society operates as one and the way they interact with each other results in the creation of a moral order for the entire community to operate in.
According to another famous philosopher James, morality is governed by sentience-without as in fact there are no moral obligations or even any moral claims. According to James, we satisfy as many demands as we can at one time and we all work towards ensuring a better future. This progress is attainable through a number of experiments which have to be made in order for us to satisfy our aims and desires and in order to reach our desired goals. According to this philosophy, the present laws or morality will change as per the laws of nature and due to evolution.
Morality cannot be sustained by any evidence of sensible proof or evidence as it is through the existence of a central force, that we function accordingly. Hence, this philosophy seeks to establish a fine balance between morality and rationality in which each individual is governed by both but at the same time morality cannot be usurped by the power of the intellectual.
According to the work of Descartes, passions of men are to be controlled as otherwise they can result in the eventuality of vicious acts which need to be controlled. Though most of his work was based on scientific matter, some of his work propagated the existence of a creator and the whole realm of morality as dictate by a higher being. Hence, in this sense the philosophy is bound by the natural laws of order which are constrained by the existence of the rational matter.
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